This idea finds modern expression in the notion that the body plan is encoded in our DNA. But the more we come to understand how cells produce shape and form, the more inadequate the idea of a genomic blueprint looks, too.

What cells follow is not a blueprint; if they can be considered programmed at all, it’s not with a plan of what to make, but with a set of rules to guide construction.

In redesigning Canada’s healthcare system, it would be wise for the designers to follow nature’s lead.

If we follow nature’s lead, we would have to determine the rules for the new healthcare system.

We would not design the entities that make up the healthcare system. We would think deeply about the rules and then let it evolve.

This follows the logic of the complex adaptive system that Professor Brenda Zimmerman taught us about.